Early View article: “Estimating Contributions of Nitrate and Herbicides From Groundwater to Headwater Streams, Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, United States,” by Scott W. Ator and Judith M. Denver
The authors estimated the regional flux of nitrate and selected herbicides from groundwater to nontidal headwater streams of the Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) based on late-winter or spring base-flow samples from 174 streams. In Coastal Plain watersheds of Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds, <2% of applied nitrogen reaches headwater streams as base flow. On the Delmarva Peninsula part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, however, more than 10% of such applications are transported through groundwater to streams, and base-flow nitrate flux represents 70% of total nitrogen flux in headwater streams.
[Please note: I have quoted and paraphrased freely from the article, but the interpretation is my own.]
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