TGIF! Weekly Water News Summary, 31 January – 6 February 2015

February 6, 2015 | Posted by Michael "Aquadoc" Campana
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Several weeks ago I never figured that the next ‘hot item’ would be measles and the vaccination issue. For an old (66) guy, who participated in the original Salk polio vaccine trials (so my parents told me) and whose cousin died from measles and Randneighborhood best friend still limps from polio, vaccinating children is a no-brainer for me. The measles vaccine was not around during my childhood but I got all the others.

And don’t forget, vaccination is a public health issue. Here is a tongue-in-cheek infographic designed to ‘help’ you with vaccination issues.

MeaslesInteresting to see Sen. Rand Paul (R-KY) rush to get a Hep-A booster to show he’s not an anti-vaxxer.

Then there is this book by Stephanie Messenger.

Lastly, we have Sen. Thom Tillis (R-NC) who wants to deregulate handwashing for food service employees and let the free-market dictate matters. Go figure…

I will get off my soapbox.

I’ve got a couple of links under the ‘Science’ category if you want to read more.

So enjoy the weekly water news - click here.

“It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men.” - Frederick Douglass 

PRESIDENT’S COLUMN, FEBRUARY 2015

by John Tracy, AWRA President

There is a quote that was made by President Woodrow Wilson many years ago that I feel embodies much of what we need to understand about the planning and management of our country’s natural resources.  I think this quote is particularly relevant to the discussion surrounding Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), and one that we should keep in mind as we try to further define IWRM as a concept and process.

“What I fear, therefore, is a government of experts. God forbid that in a democratic country we should resign the task and give the government over to experts. What are we for if we are to be scientifically taken care of by a small group of gentlemen who are the only men who understand the job? Because if we don’t understand the job, then we are not a free people. We ought to resign our free institutions and go to school to somebody and find out what it is we are about.” -Woodrow Wilson

AWRA IWRM Case Studies Report
In recent years AWRA has spent a significant amount of time and energy forwarding the discussion of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), attempting to define what it is, and how it can be implemented in water resource planning and management efforts.  This has led to AWRA sponsoring two specialty conferences, creating a new IWRM technical working group, and the development of an IWRM Case Studies Report and subsequent IWRM Webinar Series based on the case studies within the report.

AWRA IWRM ReportThe IWRM Case Studies report provides several examples of the development of IWRM plans, and provides a summary of the lessons learned based on the experiences and outcomes of these efforts.  Several key elements were identified in the Case Studies report as being critical to effectively forwarding IWRM strategies, these being the need to focus on: Sustainability; Adaptive Management; Collaboration and Funding.

Even though these efforts have helped advance the use of IWRM concepts, it is clear that there is much more discussion needed to understand how to embrace IWRM, in addition to making sure that these concepts are effectively used to aid water management and planning efforts across the United States.

The Yakima IWRM Plan
One of the case studies that was included as part of the AWRA IWRM Case Studies that could provide a demonstration of how difficult it may be to move an IWRM effort from planning to implementation, and prove how important these overall themes  are in successfully implementing an IWRM plan, is the Yakima IWRM Plan, which was recognized by receiving AWRA’s first IWRM Award in 2012 at our annual conference in Jacksonville, FL.

I am guessing that the majority of the AWRA readership is not familiar with the Yakima River basin, nor the efforts that have been recently made to advance a water plan that would address many of the issues the basin faces. Briefly, the Yakima River basin is located on the eastern drainage of the northern Cascade mountain range in the state of Washington. In many respects, the Yakima River basin is a microcosm of water management issues in the western United States. The management of the Yakima River basin occurs through a mixture of private, local, state and federal infrastructure and decision making processes, which for the most part were developed in an incremental manner over the last century.

Over the years, conflicts have arisen between the beneficiaries of the hydro-services provided through management of the river basin (water supply, recreation, hydropower, fisheries, etc.) with these conflicts being exacerbated by population growth in the basin, and periods of drought.  To help address the significant management challenges in the basin, a collaborative effort was initiated in 2009 to bring the diverse interests in the basin together to attempt to identify a path forward.  This eventually led to the development of the Yakima IWRM Plan.

A summary of the Yakima IWRM Plan can be found in the AWRA IWRM Case Studies report, and more detailed discussions on the Yakima River basin and the IWRM Plan can be found in the US Bureau of Reclamation and the Washington Department of Ecology.  In 2012 the Yakima IWRM Plan was essentially completed through the issuance of a joint Programmatic EIS by WA DOE and Reclamation, and the development of the Yakima IWRM Plan Implementation Framework.

Recent Dust Up Around the Plan
Recently, however, there has been a bit of a dust up in the local and regional press regarding the plan, related to an economic study prepared and released by the Washington Water Resources Research Center (WWRRC) at Washington State University.  The Washington State Legislature directed the WWRRC “to prepare separate benefit-cost [B-C] analyses for each of the projects proposed in the 2012 Yakima River basin water resource management plan [IP].

The analyses in this particular study indicate that several of the elements of the overall IWRM plan would not be considered cost effective, if undertaken as single project elements. Through discussions primarily in the local and regional press, the WWRRC study appears to be being used to contradict and undermine the analysis and findings of the Yakima IWRM Planning documents, even though the study clearly points out that the economic feasibility analyses approach in the WWRRC report uses significantly different assumptions than the economic analyses performed in the IWRM Planning documents.

How WWRRC Study and Yakima Plan Differ
Since the WWRRC and the Yakima IWRM studies are underlain by entirely different principles and assumptions, it is not terribly surprising that they arrive at different findings.  This situation would be akin to asking two hydrologists to predict future flows in a river, but telling one hydrologist to assume there is no interaction with the groundwater in the region (incremental analysis), and telling the other hydrologist to assume that the river is connected to the regional aquifers (integrated analysis). The studies would most likely arrive at significantly different predictions of future river flows, even though both studies got the math right.

From a technical point of view, to make use of studies whose results provide contradictory findings requires an understanding of the principles and assumptions in each of the studies, and whether these principles and assumptions properly inform decision making processes. Thus, the technical processes of an IWRM plan would suggest the appropriate manner in which contradictory studies and findings should be assessed is through scientific advisory or review bodies, not the popular press.

Trial by Media
However, what appears to be happening is that much of the discussion regarding the economic feasibility of the Yakima IWRM is taking place in the local press, with arguments and cited studies being aimed at swaying public opinion, rather than targeted at providing useful technical information to guide decision making by the agencies responsible for implementing the Yakima IWRM plan.

Overall, this is not a surprising development, since ultimately the decision making bodies that will determine whether this plan moves forward are the legislative bodies (which are representatives of the people) that must appropriate funds to allow the IWRM plan to be implemented. Thus, in this situation it appears that technical studies that are vetted through public discussion will exert a significant amount of influence over governmental decision making bodies as compared to those that are vetted within the scientific and technical community.

What Now?
The current discussion regarding the Yakima IWRM plan highlights the need to go beyond focusing on the development of technical processes to implement IWRM Plans, and enhance our focus on two of the key elements identified in the AWRA IWRM Case Studies report, these being: Collaboration, by viewing collaboration as a broader based program of social engagement of both the direct project beneficiaries and the public at large, with the goal being to create informed constituencies; and Funding, by understanding the necessity to ensure that requests for appropriations meet all of the rules and requirements that exist for the cognizant governmental entities, and that these governmental bodies are answerable to their constituencies.

For IWRM to succeed as a legitimate and useful approach for water resources planning and management in the future,  as much time and effort that is spent on creating the technical components of an IWRM plan must be spent in addressing the political and social elements, which will determine whether an IWRM plan will eventually be implemented.

AWRA member John Tracy is AWRA president and Director of the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute at the University of Idaho in Boise. Email: president@awra.org

JAWRA HIGHLIGHTS – February 2015

February 2, 2015 | Posted by Susan Scalia
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JAWRA HIGHLIGHTS – February 2015

McLellan et al. use SPARROW to examine nitrogen export from the corn belt to the Gulf of Mexico.

Rosgen discusses some points of stream restoration in an urban setting.

Podolak and Doyle review the legal basis for conditional water rights and demonstrate the potential uncertainty they introduce to current water users.

Christensen and Maki evaluate changes in the trophic state of Voyageurs National Park’s large lakes to assess a 2000 water-level management plan and prepare for adaptive management.

Yang et al. use the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of runoff and river discharge during 1901-2010 on the North American east coast.

Doll et al. apply the The Stream Performance Assessment (SPA), a new rapid assessment method, to streams with some incision throughout North Carolina.

Callahan et al. investigate the controls on stream temperature in salmon-bearing headwater streams in two common hydrogeologic settings on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

Bailey et al. investigate the groundwater resources of the Republic of Maldives.

Waldron and Larsen examine an issue of transboundary water transfer near Memphis, Tennessee.

Juracek looks at issues of aging reservoirs.

Russell et al. describe a cost-effective method for mapping the location, length, and flow classification of headwater streams that can be directly incorporated in a regulatory context.

And … Book reviews!

TGIF! Weekly Water News Summary, 24 – 30 January 2015

January 30, 2015 | Posted by Michael "Aquadoc" Campana
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I was looking for a graphic to feature this week. There was only one choice. You might want to avert your eyes (click on the photo to enlarge it).

6a00d8341bf80a53ef01b7c741c795970b-500wiThis is Miss Canada 2015′s hockey-themed costume for the recent Miss Universe contest. As one wag said, ‘It really sticks out!’ Yes, Chanel Beckenlehner really scored a hat trick with her fellow Canadians,(look closely to see her black eye) although the judges gave her a game misconduct penalty for this one. Oh, Canada!

The overall pageant winner was Paulina Vega of Colombia, whose costume had delicate patterns of a white powdery substance. The judges were blown away.

Wait’ll next year!

On a brighter note: Over 60 jobs this week! Click here to read the summary and check out the jobs.

Enjoy!

“Success is not final, failure is not fatal: it is the courage to continue that counts.” - Winston Churchill

NickumJames E. Nickum, who is Vice President of AWRA’s sister organization IWRA and Editor-in-Chief of its journal, Water International, penned an article, ‘Revsiting Water Paradigms’, for the current copy of the IWRA newsletter (download below). I have taken the liberty of posting the article below. The title is a subtheme of the upcoming IWRA XVth World Water Congress in Edinburgh, 25-29 May 2015.

Download IWRA_Newsletter_December_2014

Here goes…

Water scarcity, water governance, water security, water productivity, virtual water, water footprints, green water, IWRM, hydrocentricity, hydrocracy, hydro-hegemony, hydrosolidarity, water grabs, resilience, river basin trajectories, water poverty, the water-food-energy nexus, water justice, adaptive management….It would be tempting to say that the water world is being inundated with a flood of concepts, frames, even paradigms, except that eventually floods recede. With new terms, there is no sign of aba- tement.

Hence it is timely for ‘revisiting water paradigms’ to be designated a subtheme of the XVth World Water Congress. In order to keep from being swamped, we need not only to be aware of the strengths and limitations of the words we use, but also to consider how and why we use them.

The stakes are high. Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman (2011: 277) has warned that “once you have accepted a theory and used it as a tool in your thinking, it is extraordinarily difficult to notice its flaws. If you come upon an observation that does not seem to fit the model, you assume that there must be a perfectly good explanation that you are somehow missing. You give the theory the benefit of the doubt, trusting the community of experts who have accepted it.”

Once in a great while there has been a challenge to the hegemony of terms, such as the critical analyses of IWRM written by Biswas (2004) [the second most cited article in Water International] and Molle (2008), or of water crisis by Rogers et al. (2006). More often there have been attempts to give them some practi- cal content and coherence, for example, Grigg’s well-reasoned 2008 overview of IWRM, which is still the most read article online in Water International. Despite their popularity, these efforts have done little to deter the continued, profligate, and unreflective use of terms new and no longer so new.

Hence it is a pleasure to read the recently published marvellous little volume edited by Lautze (2014) on key concepts in water resource management (note: this is an unsolicited plug). According to Lautze, the insights generated by the flow of neologisms are “often encumbered by ambiguity, confusion and even fatigue”. Looking at the most commonly used terms, he and his colleagues find that:

1) Water scarcity is often conflated with water stress, and lumps together high quantity uses such as agriculture that have low economic and human security value with the more modest but critical requirements of drinking water. Also, when prices are set at anything below market clearing levels, there is always economic water scarcity; and even then there are likely to be unmet needs by the poor, socially or physically defined.

2) Water governance, which should be about process, including that of defining goals, “is frequently inflated to include issues that go well beyond governance,” adopting a priori goals that are “often derived from the tenets of IWRM” and including institutions as well as processes.

3) Water security, “has come to infiltrate prominent minent discourse in the international water and development community … [but] understandings of the term are murky” and rarely quantified. Indeed, attempts at quan- tification highlight the difficulty of bringing disparate risk-based issues into one termino- logical rainbow.

4) Water productivity, “holds value when employed together with other indicators [but] does not add value when applied in isolation in a particular location”; in those cases, related extant concepts such as water efficiency or agricultural productivity can do a better job.

5) Virtual water and water footprints may help raise awareness but “do not contain sufficient information to determine smart public policies or to guide discussions regarding international trade” [86]; in fact, their use in those ways could inflict unnecessary harm on producers and households in areas where the opportunity cost of water is relatively low.

6) Green, blue, and otherwise coored water do not add scientific value to existing concepts and “can also prove dangerously misleading.”

So much for the big ones. In an appendix, Hanjra and Lautze touch base on 25 more trendy terms, including all the ones this essay began with aside from the last two, which they missed somehow. Some of these terms may help in bridging the science-policy interface, by framing problems in attention grabbing metaphors, but that can lead to a policy environment that is actually divorced all the more from a sound scientific understanding. In the end, to bring us back to the topic at hand, Lautze et al. suggest that we begin by setting out the critical challenges to the water sector, then adopt those concepts that can tackle those challenges. Those terms can then be elevated to “’paradigmatic’ status” [106].

But wait! These are concepts – or perhaps terms. How can we call them paradigms? Alas, that is another word on the loose that seems to have taken a number of concepts with it. Lautze associates “paradigm” with concept. That may work to give them a pseudo-scientific cachet in a media-dominated policy world, but we must acknowledge that it is not exactly the use of the term as Thomas Kuhn (1962) brought it into current usage, as a framework for organizing and interpreting scientific observations, not rebundling policy domains or aspirations. The hydrological cycle is a paradigm in this sense; IWRM or water security are not. Perhaps they are discourses or frames? Pandora has more than one box of terms, or, to stay in metaphor, floods come from many directions.

We have much to discuss in the halls of Edinburgh.

References

- Biswas, A. (2004). Integrated water resources mana- gement: a reassessment. Water International 29(2): 248-256.

- Grigg, N.S. (2008). Integrated water resources ma- nagement: balancing views and improving practice. Water International 33(3): 279-292.

- Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Far- rar, Straus and Giroux.

- Kuhn, T (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolution (2d Edition). University of Chicago Press.

-Lautze, J. ed. (2014). Key Concepts in Water Resource Management: A review and critical evaluation. Routledge (Earthscan).

- Rogers, P., M.R, Llamas, and L. Martínez-Cortina, ed. (2006). Water Crisis: Myth or Reality?. Taylor and Francis/Balkema.

Curious to see how much discussion this generates in Edinburgh. Is this a big deal? Or is this just ‘hydro-paradigmgate’?

Great place to be presenting a talk on hydrophilanthropyYes, I will be there.

Your comments are appreciated.

See you there!

Thanks to Slobodan P. Simonovic for alerting me to Nickum’s article.

“If you’re going through hell, keep going.” - Winston Churchill

G. Tracy Mehan III, an attorney and a Mississippi River basin kid just like authors Christine A. Klein and Sandra B.6a00d8341bf80a53ef01bb07e1cd68970d Zellmer, penned this excellent review of their book, Mississppi River Tragedies: A Century of Unnatural Disasters.

Tracy was kind enough to send me his review, which will appear in the January-February 2015 issue of The Environmental Forum:

Download Mehan_Mississippi_River_Tragedies

I gave the book a hearty thumbs up’ last April.  6a00d8341bf80a53ef01a3fcef740d970b-200wi

No spoilers from me, just this excerpt:

Nevertheless, we are seeing improvement in national policy. As I have observed before in this space, The Corps is evolving from “flood control” or “flood damage reduction” to “flood risk management.” Katrina and Sandy have moved it and other agencies toward a more re- silient strategy incorporating natural and built systems and risk commu- nication. Congress needs to support them in this policy shift.

Enjoy!

I’ll close with the same quote with which I concluded my post:

“The problem of the Mississippi is a fascinating one, but more a problem of your national psychology than of your river. You treat the Mississippi as if it were a river apart, differing utterly from all other streams. It is nothing of the sort.” - Sir William Willcocks, British engineering expert, 1914, interview in the New York Times, 1914 (see page 57 of the text)

TGIF! Weekly Water News Summary, 17 – 23 January 2015

January 23, 2015 | Posted by Michael "Aquadoc" Campana
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For those of you who enjoyed The Oregon Water Conference (TOWC) in 2011 we are hoping to resurrect it in6a00d8341bf80a53ef01b7c73cee37970b-200wi Spring 2017.

Details are being worked out and I will let you know when there is a firm date.

If you want a dose of excellent water research this year, check out the OSU 6a00d8341bf80a53ef01b7c73cef02970b-120wiHydrophiles’ Water Research Symposium. This year’s Water Research Symposium will be 26-28 April 2015 at the CH2M Hill Alumni Center at OSU.

More later!

Enjoy this week’s water summary – and jobs. Click here.

“Any girl can be glamorous. All you have to do is stand still and look stupid.” - Hedy Lamarr (thanks to Greg Laden)

‘Checkbook’ Hydrology: Caveat Emptor

January 22, 2015 | Posted by Michael "Aquadoc" Campana
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These comments are directed to water professionals (real or wanna-be) and not to hoi polloi (not intended as a derogatory term). Some faithful readers might get a sense of déjà vu when they read this post. I feel obliged to repeat that December 2008 missive.

ImagesToday there is a lot of chatter about water budgets and how similar they are to checking accounts. You know the story: outflows = withdrawals and inflows = deposits.

Of course, like your checking account, water outflows should not exceed water inflows, lest your hydrologic system becomes depleted. It’s a good analogy, easily understood. I first heard it 45 Untitledyears ago in Marty Fogel’s Watershed Management class at the University of Arizona. I use it in my classes. But I don’t teach it as a water management tool

Caveats

1) Few ‘checkbook hydrologists’ talk about the stocks, only the flows. If you don’t know how much water you have in your system (analogous to the checking balance) you cannot accurately assess how depleted your system is. If you see your outflows exceeding inflows, you know you’re going to be in trouble if that keeps up, but you don’t know when. 10 months? 10 years? 100 years?

2) The stock assessment is generally more difficult for groundwater systems than surface water systems. People lament higher outflows relatively to inflows but do not know how much is stored in the system. So what’s the % of depletion?

3) Inflows, outflows and stocks do (more often than not) vary with time. So your systems are transient, not steady state, which means you need to keep measuring and calcuating.

4) Steady-state budgets are especially dangerous as a tool to manage a groundwater system. Reason: as you develop (start pumping) the groundwater, the budget becomes invalid. Discharge (outlfow) and recharge (inflow) change, and the increase in discharge might cause an increase in recharge (by harvesting ‘rejected recharge’ in Figure 1 below from Theis [1940]). How about that – increase withdrawals from your checking account to increase deposits!

5) Declining water levels in an aquifer – whether a confined or unconfined one – do not signify a state of ‘groundwater mining’. What declining water levels signify is that the aquifer is seeking a new equilibrium and some water is coming from storage.

John D. Bredehoeft (‘The Water Budget Myth Revisited: Why Hydrogeologists Model’Ground WaterVolume 40,  Issue 4, pages 340–345, July 2002) said it best:

Within the ground water community, the idea persists that if one can estimate the recharge to a ground water system, one then can determine the size of a sustainable development. Theis addressed this idea in 1940 and showed it to be wrong-yet the myth continues. The size of a sustainable ground water development usually depends on how much of the discharge from the system can be “captured” by the development. Capture is independent of the recharge; it depends on the dynamic response of the aquifer system to the development. Ground water models were created to study the response dynamics of ground water systems; it is one of the principal reasons hydrogeologists model.

Untitled

Download Theis_source_of_water (original published paper)

Download Theis-1940 (better copy – open-file report)

Download Bredehoeft_GW_2002

Another great resource: Another excellent resource is the U.S. Geological Survey’s Circular 1186, Sustainability of Ground-Water Resources, by W.M. Alley, T. E. Reillly, and O.L. Franke.

Upshot: water budgets are useful for illustrative purposes, but otherwise (water resources devlopment and management) must be used with great caution, especially for groundwater systems (don’t even think about it).

”It is our responsibilities, not ourselves, that we should take seriously.” - Peter Ustinov (thanks to Faruck Morcos)

TGIF! Weekly Water News Summary, 10 – 16 January 2015

January 16, 2015 | Posted by Michael "Aquadoc" Campana
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A few pictures from my brief (4 days) trip to Iran.

This picture is one of me on an bridge in Tehran looking north to the Alborz Mountains, the highest mountains (one peak > 18,000 feet)  in Iran. The Caspian Sea is on the other side.

Tehran

Here is a shot of a viewing platform in a large urban park in Tehran. At the top of the steps my PSU colleague Hamid Moradkhani is taking my picture. Just to the left of this structure was a skateboard park where a young man in baggy pants was practicing to the beat of K-popDon’t know where the religious police were.

Park

Welcome to Esfahan (aka ‘Isfahan’)!

Esfahan

 Click here to view the weekly water news summary.

Enjoy!

“A blind man who sees is better than a sighted man who is blind.” - Persian proverb

6a00d8341bf80a53ef01bb07db44c6970d-200wiRalph Carr Heath, USGS hydrologist for 34 years and then a consulting hydrogeologist, died on 12 January 2015 in Raleigh, NC. He was 89.

Ralph had a distinguished career with the USGS. It was quite remarkable, especially when one considers that he possessed only a Bachelor’s degree in geology from UNC-Chapel Hill. Still, Heath had the chops to be named the Darcy Distinguished Lecturer by the NGWA in 1990. He lectured on, “Hydrogeology and Hazardous Waste Disposal”, which you can still view on theNGWA site.

What I most remember about Heath is his gem of a publication, the 1983 Water-Supply Paper 2220, Basic Ground-Water Hydrology. 

Download WSP2220_report

A classic if there ever was one, BGWH has been printed ten times and translated into German and Portuguese. Those versions are ones I know for sure; I suspect there is a Spanish version out there somewhere. It’s a remarkable little book, cover the basics of groundwater hydrology with short chapters (a few pages) on various topics. Whe I taught introductory groundwater hydrology I used WSP 2220 as a supplementary text. The students generally loved it, as it simplified concepts or cut through the verbiage and described things simply. I still use it for myself today. I’m on my third copy.

From his obituary in the Raleigh News & Observer:

After discharge from the Navy he returned to UNC Chapel Hill, receiving a BS degree in geology in 1948. During a career as a hydrogeologist with the U.S. Geological Survey from 1948 to 1982, he worked in Florida, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and North Carolina. His positions in the Geological Survey included that of Acting District Engineer in Tallahassee, District Geologist in Albany for New York and southern New England, District Chief of New York, and District Chief in Raleigh for North Carolina. While serving as District Chief in Albany he taught courses in groundwater hydrology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, NY.

Following retirement from the Geological Survey, Mr. Heath began a second career as a consulting hydrogeologist. He also became an Adjunct Professor of Civil Engineering at NC State University, Lecturer in the Department of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Duke University, and Adjunct Professor of Geology at East Carolina University. He taught courses in groundwater hydrology at NC State and Carolina in the 1980′s and at Duke into the 1990′s. Later, he taught short courses in the Duke Senior Executive Program, for the National Research Council in Denver, for the NC State University Soil Science Department, and for Olson Enterprises of Tabor City, NC.

Mr. Heath was the author or co-author of more than 70 scientific publications, including an introductory groundwater textbook and hydrogeologic maps of the United States and of North America. His Geological Survey publication entitled Basic Ground-water Hydrology has been printed 10 times, and translated versions have been printed in both Germany and Brazil.

His professional honors include both Distinguished Lecturer and the Henry Darcy Distinguished Lecturer of the National Ground Water Association, the first Founders Award of the American Institute of Hydrology, Award for Distinguished Service in Hydrogeology of the Geological Society of America, and the Meritorious Service Award of the U.S. Department of the Interior.

For me, Ralph C. Heath will forever by synonymous with basic groundwater hydrology. So I won’t soon forget him. But I’m sorry, Ralph, ‘ground water’ is now ‘groundwater’.

I’ll also remember him for the following quote:

‘Seldom has so much money been spent so unwisely to accomplish so little.’ - Ralph C. Heath, referring to the Superfund program, 1990 (apologies to Winston Churchill


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